1. 1988-Toni Morrison wins the Pulitzer Prize for her novel “Beloved”
  2. 1980-Death of Jesse Owens (66), who won four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics, in Tuscon, Arizona.
  3. 1960-Eighteen students suspended by Southern University. Southern University students rebelled March 31, boycotted classes and requested withdrawal slips. Rebellion collapsed after death of professor from heart attack.
  4. 1948-Black Youths Urged to Resist Induction. A. Phillip Randolph told Senate Armed Services Committee that unless segregation and discrimination were banned in draft programs he would urge Black youth to resist induction by civil disobedience.
  5. 1931-Cab Calloway recorded “Minnie the Moocher”- the first jazz album to sell a million copies.
  6. 1930-Nomination of Judge John J. Parker. President Hoover nominated Judge John J. Parker of North Carolina for a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court. The NAACP launched a national campaign against the appointment. Parker was not confirmed by the Senate.
  7. 1901-Navy Seaman Alphonse Girandy wins Medal of Honor. U.S. Navy Seaman Alphonse Gerandy, serving on the US Petrel, risked his own life to safe crewmen during a fire. His Medal of Honor was presented in 1902.
  8. 1878-Jack Johnson, boxer and controversial heavyweight champion (1908-15) and 1st black to hold title; defeated Tommy Burns for crown at age 30; fled to Europe in 1913 after Mann Act conviction; lost title to Jess Willard in Havana, but claimed to have taken a dive; pro record 78-8-12 with 45 KO’s.
  9. 1870-Mundy Peterson, of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, becomes the first black person to vote as a result of the adoption of the 15th Amendment.
  10. 1856-Henry Ossian Flipper, the first African American graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, was born in Thomasville, Georgia. Enduring heavy racism during his schooling. Flipper went on the establish a military career. This was ended however after he was falsely accused of embezzling funds.
  11. 1850-“Separate but Equal” Massachusetts Supreme Court rejected the argument of Charles Sumner in the Boston school integration suit and established the “separate but equal” precedent.
  12. 1850-United States Population: 23,191,876. Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7 %)
  13. 1797-Olaudah Equiano dies in London without ever getting to see Africa again.
  14. 1741-Slave conspiracies and fires cause Hysteria. Succession of suspicious fires and reports of slave conspiracies created hysteria in New York in March and April. Thirty-one slaves and five whites were executed.

    (GERMANY OUT) Jesse Owens (James Cleveland Owens)*12.09.1913-31.03.1980+US-American track and field athletewon 4 gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin in 1936Olympic Summer Games in Berlin in 1936: Jesse Owens exercising in the Olympic village of Doeberitz (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images)
    (GERMANY OUT) Jesse Owens (James Cleveland Owens)*12.09.1913-31.03.1980+US-American track and field athletewon 4 gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin in 1936Olympic Summer Games in Berlin in 1936: Jesse Owens exercising in the Olympic village of Doeberitz (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images)